Electronical – Electronic | Definition of Electronic at jpart.me


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This article reviews the historical development of electronics, highlighting major discoveries and advances. It also describes some key electronic functions and the manner in which various devices carry out these functions. The history of electronics The vacuum tube era Theoretical and experimental studies of electricity during the 18th and 19th centuries led to the development of the first electrical machines and the beginning of the widespread use of electricity. The history of electronics began to evolve separately from that of electricity late in the 19th century with the identification of the electron by the English physicist Sir Joseph John Thomson and the measurement of its electric charge by the American physicist Robert A.

Millikan in Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Edison had observed a bluish glow in some of his early lightbulbs under certain conditions and found that a current would flow from one electrode in the lamp to another if the second one anode were made positively charged with respect to the first cathode.

Work by Thomson and his students and by the English engineer John Ambrose Fleming revealed that this so-called Edison effect was the result of the emission of electrons from the cathode, the hot filament in the lamp. The motion of the electrons to the anode, a metal plate, constituted an electric current that would not exist if the anode were negatively charged.

This discovery provided impetus for the development of electron tubes, including an improved X-ray tube by the American engineer William D. The detection of a radio signal, which is a very high-frequency alternating current AC , requires that the signal be rectified; i. The fact that crystal rectifiers worked at all encouraged scientists to continue studying them and gradually to obtain the fundamental understanding of the electrical properties of semiconducting materials necessary to permit the invention of the transistor.

In Lee De Forest , an American engineer, developed a type of vacuum tube that was capable of amplifying radio signals. De Forest added a grid of fine wire between the cathode and anode of the two-electrode thermionic valve constructed by Fleming.

The new device, which De Forest dubbed the Audion patented in , was thus a three-electrode vacuum tube. In operation, the anode in such a vacuum tube is given a positive potential positively biased with respect to the cathode, while the grid is negatively biased.

A large negative bias on the grid prevents any electrons emitted from the cathode from reaching the anode; however, because the grid is largely open space, a less negative bias permits some electrons to pass through it and reach the anode.

Small variations in the grid potential can thus control large amounts of anode current. The vacuum tube permitted the development of radio broadcasting, long-distance telephony, television, and the first electronic digital computers.

These early electronic computers were, in fact, the largest vacuum-tube systems ever built. The special requirements of the many different applications of vacuum tubes led to numerous improvements, enabling them to handle large amounts of power, operate at very high frequencies, have greater than average reliability, or be made very compact the size of a thimble.

The cathode-ray tube , originally developed for displaying electrical waveforms on a screen for engineering measurements, evolved into the television picture tube.

Such tubes operate by forming the electrons emitted from the cathode into a thin beam that impinges on a fluorescent screen at the end of the tube. The screen emits light that can be viewed from outside the tube. Deflecting the electron beam causes patterns of light to be produced on the screen, creating the desired optical images. These usually involve operation at extremes of power or frequency.

Vacuum tubes are fragile and ultimately wear out in service. Failure occurs in normal usage either from the effects of repeated heating and cooling as equipment is switched on and off thermal fatigue , which ultimately causes a physical fracture in some part of the interior structure of the tube, or from degradation of the properties of the cathode by residual gases in the tube. These shortcomings motivated scientists at Bell Laboratories to seek an alternative to the vacuum tube and led to the development of the transistor.

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