Inversor – Power inverter – Wikipedia


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Examples include: 12 V DC, for smaller consumer and commercial inverters that typically run from a rechargeable 12 V lead acid battery or automotive electrical outlet. Output waveform[ edit ] An inverter may produce a square wave, modified sine wave, pulsed sine wave, pulse width modulated wave PWM or sine wave depending on circuit design. Common types of inverters produce square waves or quasi-square waves. One measure of the purity of a sine wave is the total harmonic distortion THD.

Square wave output can produce “humming” when connected to audio equipment and is generally unsuitable for sensitive electronics. Sine wave Sine wave[ edit ] A power inverter device which produces a multiple step sinusoidal AC waveform is referred to as a sine wave inverter.

Where power inverter devices substitute for standard line power, a sine wave output is desirable because many electrical products are engineered to work best with a sine wave AC power source. The standard electric utility provides a sine wave, typically with minor imperfections but sometimes with significant distortion. The result is three level waveform with equal intervals of zero volts; peak positive volts; zero volts; peak negative volts and then zero volts.

This sequence is repeated. The resultant wave very roughly resembles the shape of a sine wave. The waveform in commercially available modified-sine-wave inverters resembles a square wave but with a pause during the polarity reversal. By changing the pulse width, the harmonic spectrum can be changed. This is slightly lower than for a square wave.

The generated gate pulses are given to each switch in accordance with the developed pattern to obtain the desired output. Harmonic spectrum in the output depends on the width of the pulses and the modulation frequency. However, the load may operate less efficiently owing to the harmonics associated with a modified sine wave and produce a humming noise during operation. This also affects the efficiency of the system as a whole, since the manufacturer’s nominal conversion efficiency does not account for harmonics.

Therefore, pure sine wave inverters may provide significantly higher efficiency than modified sine wave inverters. However, they may be quite noisy. A series LC filter tuned to the fundamental frequency may help. These only require one DC supply, in the manner of the MSN designs, but the switching takes place at a far faster rate, typically many KHz, so that the varying width of the pulses can be smoothed to create the sine wave.

If microprocessor is used to generate the switching timing, the harmonic content and efficiency can be closely controlled. Low pass filtering with series inductors and shunt capacitors is required to suppress the switching frequency. Output frequency[ edit ] The AC output frequency of a power inverter device is usually the same as standard power line frequency, 50 or 60 hertz. Also if the output of the device or circuit is to be further conditioned for example stepped up then the frequency may be much higher for good transformer efficiency.

This allows the inverter to power numerous devices designed for standard line power. Output power[ edit ] A power inverter will often have an overall power rating expressed in watts or kilowatts. This describes the power that will be available to the device the inverter is driving and, indirectly, the power that will be needed from the DC source. Smaller popular consumer and commercial devices designed to mimic line power typically range from to watts.

Not all inverter applications are solely or primarily concerned with power delivery; in some cases the frequency and or waveform properties are used by the follow-on circuit or device. Batteries[ edit ] The runtime of an inverter powered by batteries is dependent on the battery power and the amount of power being drawn from the inverter at a given time.

As the amount of equipment using the inverter increases, the runtime will decrease. In order to prolong the runtime of an inverter, additional batteries can be added to the inverter. In a series configuration, if a single battery dies, the other batteries will not be able to power the load. Parallel configuration If the goal is to increase capacity and prolong the runtime of the inverter, batteries can be connected in parallel.

This increases the overall ampere hour Ah rating of the battery set. If a single battery is discharged though, the other batteries will then discharge through it. This can lead to rapid discharge of the entire pack, or even an over-current and possible fire. The unit shown provides up to 1. An inverter converts the DC electricity from sources such as batteries or fuel cells to AC electricity. Uninterruptible power supplies[ edit ] An uninterruptible power supply UPS uses batteries and an inverter to supply AC power when mains power is not available.

When mains power is restored, a rectifier supplies DC power to recharge the batteries. The DC power for the inverter section can be derived from a normal AC wall outlet or some other source. Control and feedback circuitry is used to adjust the final output of the inverter section which will ultimately determine the speed of the motor operating under its mechanical load.

Motor speed control needs are numerous and include things like: industrial motor driven equipment, electric vehicles, rail transport systems, and power tools. The generated gate pulses are given to each switch in accordance with the developed pattern and thus the output is obtained. In refrigeration compressors[ edit ] An inverter can be used to control the speed of the compressor motor to drive variable refrigerant flow in a refrigeration or air conditioning system to regulate system performance.

Such installations are known as inverter compressors. Traditional methods of refrigeration regulation use single-speed compressors switched on and off periodically; inverter-equipped systems have a variable-frequency drive that control the speed of the motor and thus the compressor and cooling output.

The variable-frequency AC from the inverter drives a brushless or induction motor , the speed of which is proportional to the frequency of the AC it is fed, so the compressor can be run at variable speeds—eliminating compressor stop-start cycles increases efficiency. A microcontroller typically monitors the temperature in the space to be cooled, and adjusts the speed of the compressor to maintain the desired temperature.

The additional electronics and system hardware add cost to the equipment, but can result in substantial savings in operating costs. Synchronverters are inverters that are designed to simulate a rotating generator, and can be used to help stabilize grids. They can be designed to react faster than normal generators to changes in grid frequency, and can give conventional generators a chance to respond to very sudden changes in demand or production.

Solar[ edit ] Internal view of a solar inverter. Note the many large capacitors blue cylinders , used to store energy briefly and improve the output waveform. Main article: Solar inverter A solar inverter is a balance of system BOS component of a photovoltaic system and can be used for both grid-connected and off-grid systems. Solar inverters have special functions adapted for use with photovoltaic arrays, including maximum power point tracking and anti-islanding protection.

Solar micro-inverters differ from conventional inverters, as an individual micro-inverter is attached to each solar panel. This can improve the overall efficiency of the system. The output from several micro-inverters is then combined and often fed to the electrical grid.

In other applications, a conventional inverter can be combined with a battery bank maintained by a solar charge controller. This combination of components is often referred to as a solar generator. To do this, AC power is first rectified to provide DC power. The inverter then changes the DC power to high frequency AC power. This configuration has recently become very popular in AC power supply and adjustable speed drive applications.

At the receiving location, an inverter in a static inverter plant converts the power back to AC. The inverter must be synchronized with grid frequency and phase and minimize harmonic generation. Miscellaneous[ edit ] Typical applications for power inverters include: Portable consumer devices that allow the user to connect a battery , or set of batteries, to the device to produce AC power to run various electrical items such as lights, televisions, kitchen appliances, and power tools.

Use in power generation systems such as electric utility companies or solar generating systems to convert DC power to AC power. Use within any larger electronic system where an engineering need exists for deriving an AC source from a DC source. Circuit description[ edit ] Top: Simple inverter circuit shown with an electromechanical switch and automatic equivalent auto-switching device implemented with two transistors and split winding auto-transformer in place of the mechanical switch.

Square waveform with fundamental sine wave component, 3rd harmonic and 5th harmonic Basic design[ edit ] In one simple inverter circuit, DC power is connected to a transformer through the center tap of the primary winding. A switch is rapidly switched back and forth to allow current to flow back to the DC source following two alternate paths through one end of the primary winding and then the other.

The alternation of the direction of current in the primary winding of the transformer produces alternating current AC in the secondary circuit. The current in the electromagnet is interrupted by the action of the switch so that the switch continually switches rapidly back and forth. This type of electromechanical inverter switch, called a vibrator or buzzer, was once used in vacuum tube automobile radios.

A similar mechanism has been used in door bells, buzzers and tattoo machines. As they became available with adequate power ratings, transistors and various other types of semiconductor switches have been incorporated into inverter circuit designs.

Certain ratings, especially for large systems many kilowatts use thyristors SCR. SCRs provide large power handling capability in a semiconductor device, and can readily be controlled over a variable firing range.

Using Fourier analysis , periodic waveforms are represented as the sum of an infinite series of sine waves. The sine wave that has the same frequency as the original waveform is called the fundamental component. The other sine waves, called harmonics, that are included in the series have frequencies that are integral multiples of the fundamental frequency. Fourier analysis can be used to calculate the total harmonic distortion THD.

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