Seusa – Susa – Wikipedia


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Early settlement[ edit ] In urban history , Susa is one of the oldest-known settlements of the region. The founding of Susa corresponded with the abandonment of nearby villages. Potts suggests that the settlement may have been founded to try to reestablish the previously destroyed settlement at Chogha Mish. Another important settlement in the area is Chogha Bonut , that was discovered in Susa’s earliest settlement is known as Susa I period c. Two settlements named by archaeologists Acropolis 7 ha and Apadana 6.

The vessels found are eloquent testimony to the artistic and technical achievements of their makers, and they hold clues about the organization of the society that commissioned them. The recurrence in close association of vessels of three types—a drinking goblet or beaker, a serving dish, and a small jar—implies the consumption of three types of food, apparently thought to be as necessary for life in the afterworld as it is in this one.

Ceramics of these shapes, which were painted, constitute a large proportion of the vessels from the cemetery. Others are coarse cooking-type jars and bowls with simple bands painted on them and were probably the grave goods of the sites of humbler citizens as well as adolescents and, perhaps, children. Copper metallurgy is also attested during this period, which was contemporary with metalwork at some highland Iranian sites such as Tepe Sialk. Master of animals , Susa I, Louvre Sb Clay, Uruk period c.

From the Tell of the Acropolis in Susa. The Louvre Susa came within the Uruk cultural sphere during the Uruk period. An imitation of the entire state apparatus of Uruk, proto-writing , cylinder seals with Sumerian motifs, and monumental architecture is found at Susa. According to some scholars, Susa may have been a colony of Uruk. There is some dispute about the comparative periodization of Susa and Uruk at this time, as well as about the extent of Uruk influence in Susa.

Louvre Museum. Thus, Susa combined the influence of two cultures, from the highland area and from the alluvial plains. Also, Potts stresses the fact that the writing and numerical systems of Uruk were not simply borrowed in Susa wholesale. Rather, only partial and selective borrowing took place, that was adapted to Susa’s needs. Despite the fact that Uruk was far larger than Susa at the time, Susa was not its colony, but still maintained some independence for a long time, according to Potts.

Holly Pittman, an art historian at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia says, “they [Susanians] are participating entirely in an Uruk way of life. They are not culturally distinct; the material culture of Susa is a regional variation of that on the Mesopotamian plain”. Gilbert Stein, director of the University of Chicago’s Oriental Institute, says that “An expansion once thought to have lasted less than years now apparently went on for years.

It is hard to think of any colonial system lasting that long. The spread of Uruk material is not evidence of Uruk domination; it could be local choice”. This is also when the Proto-Elamite tablets first appear in the record. Subsequently, Susa became the centre of Elam civilization. Susa enters history during the Early Dynastic period of Sumer. Control of Susiana shifted between Elam , Sumer, and Akkad. Susiana is sometimes mistaken as synonymous with Elam but, according to F.

Vallat, it was a distinct cultural and political entity. The use of the Elamite language as an administrative language was first attested in texts of ancient Ansan, Tall-e Mal-yan, dated BCE. Silver cup from Marvdasht , Iran, with a linear-Elamite inscription from the time of Kutik-Inshushinak. National Museum of Iran The main goddess of the city was Nanaya , who had a significant temple in Susa. Historical records mention the conquest of Elam by Enmebaragesi , the Sumerian king of Kish in Mesopotamia.

Three dynasties ruled during this period. Twelve kings of each of the first two dynasties, those of Awan or Avan; c. Two Elamite dynasties said to have exercised brief control over parts of Sumer in very early times include Awan and Hamazi ; and likewise, several of the stronger Sumerian rulers, such as Eannatum of Lagash and Lugal-anne-mundu of Adab , are recorded as temporarily dominating Elam.

Kutik-Inshushinak[ edit ] Susa was the capital of an Akkadian province until ca. Also, he was the last from the Awan dynasty according to the Susa kinglist. He encouraged the use of the Linear Elamite script, that remains undeciphered. The city was subsequently conquered by the neo-Sumerian Third Dynasty of Ur and held until Ur finally collapsed at the hands of the Elamites under Kindattu in ca.

At this time, Susa became an Elamite capital under the Epartid dynasty. Indus-Susa relations BCE [ edit ] Numerous artifacts of Indus Valley Civilization origin have been found in Susa from this period, especially seals and etched carnelian beads , pointing to Indus-Mesopotamia relations during this period.

Elongated buffalo with line of standard Indus script signs. Tell of the Susa acropolis. Louvre Museum , reference Sb Found in the tell of the Susa acropolis. Louvre Museum , reference Sb [53] Indian carnelian beads with white design, etched in white with an alkali through a heat process, imported to Susa in BCE. Louvre Museum, reference Sb Middle Elamite period c. Their rule was characterized by an “Elamisation” of Susa, and the kings took the title “king of Anshan and Susa”.

While, previously, the Akkadian language was frequently used in inscriptions, the succeeding kings, such as the Igihalkid dynasty of c. Thus, Elamite language and culture grew in importance in Susiana. In ca. Archeologists found it in Nebuchadnezzar I of the Babylonian empire plundered Susa around fifty years later. An ornate design on this limestone ritual vat from the Middle Elamite period depicts creatures with the heads of goats and the tails of fish, Susa, — BCE.

A tablet unearthed in by Austen Henry Layard in Nineveh reveals Ashurbanipal as an “avenger”, seeking retribution for the humiliations that the Elamites had inflicted on the Mesopotamians over the centuries: “Susa, the great holy city, abode of their gods, seat of their mysteries, I conquered. I entered its palaces, I opened their treasuries where silver and gold, goods and wealth were amassed.

I destroyed the ziggurat of Susa. I smashed its shining copper horns. I reduced the temples of Elam to naught; their gods and goddesses I scattered to the winds. The tombs of their ancient and recent kings I devastated, I exposed to the sun, and I carried away their bones toward the land of Ashur.

I devastated the provinces of Elam and, on their lands, I sowed salt. Detail of the beginning of the frieze The 24 countries subject to the Achaemenid Empire at the time of Darius, on the Statue of Darius I. Under Cyrus’ son Cambyses II , Susa became a center of political power as one of four capitals of the Achaemenid Persian empire, while reducing the significance of Pasargadae as the capital of Persis.

Following Cambyses’ brief rule, Darius the Great began a major building program in Susa and Persepolis ,which included building a large palace. During this time he describes his new capital in the DSf inscription: “This palace which I built at Susa, from afar its ornamentation was brought. Downward the earth was dug, until I reached rock in the earth. On that rubble the palace was constructed. Events mentioned in the Old Testament book of Esther are said to have occurred in Susa during the Achaemenid period.

In that same year Alexander celebrated in Susa with a mass wedding between the Persians and Macedonians. The city retained its importance under the Seleucids for approximately one century after Alexander, however Susa lost its position of imperial capital to Seleucia to become the regional capital of the satrapy of Susiana. Seleucus I Nicator minted coins there in substantial quantities. Especially in the royal city large, well-equipped peristyle houses have been excavated.

The city was at least temporarily ruled by the rulers of the Elymais with Kamnaskires II Nikephoros minting coins there. The city however retained a considerable amount of independence and retained its Greek city-state organization well into the ensuing Parthian period.

Susa – Wikipedia

Susa was one of the most important cities of the Ancient Near East.In historic literature, Susa appears in the very earliest Sumerian records: for example, it is described as one of the places obedient to Inanna, patron deity of Uruk, in Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta.. Biblical texts. Susa is also mentioned in the Ketuvim of the Hebrew Bible by the name Shushan, mainly in Esther, but also …

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Ciugud – Wikipedia

Ciugud (Hungarian: Maroscsüged; German: Schenkendorf) is a commune located in Alba County, Transylvania, Romania.It has a population of 3,048 (as of 2011). It is composed of six villages: Ciugud, Drâmbar (Drombár), Hăpria (Oláhherepe), Șeușa (Sóspatak), Teleac (Újcsongvaitelep) and Limba (Dumbrava from 1958 to 2004; Lombfalva).References


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